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THE PRESENT TENSE OF VERBS WITH STEM CHANGES

    Stem- changing verbs do not follow the regular verb patterns of conjugation, changing a vowel in the stem. This change affects to all the persons in the singular and the third person of plural.   VERBS ENDING IN –AR AND –ER   Verbs ending in –ar and –er with the stem vowel e […]

Stem- changing verbs do not follow the regular verb patterns of conjugation, changing a vowel in the stem. This change affects to all the persons in the singular and the third person of plural.

VERBS ENDING IN –AR AND –ER

Verbs ending in –ar and –er with the stem vowel e change to ie in all the forms except in the nosotros and vosotros

Cerrar (to close)Querer (to love, to want)
CierroCerramosQuieroQueremos
CierrasCerráisQuieresQueréis
CierraCierranQuiereQuieren

The following is  a list of commonly used verbs that follow this pattern:

-ar-er
AcertarTo guessDefenderTo defend
AtravesarTo crossDescenderTo descent
ComenzarTo start, to beginEncenderTo light up
ConfesarTo confessEntenderTo understand
DespertarTo wake upPerderTo lose, to miss
EncerrarTo lock in  
Gobernarto rule  
HelarTo freeze  
NegarTo deny  
NevarTo snow  

Verbs ending in –ar and –er with the stem vowel o change to ue in all the forms except in the nosotros and vosotros

Contar (to count, to tell)Volver (to return)
CuentoContamosVuelvoVolvemos
CuentasContáisVuelvesVolvéis
CuentaCuentanVuelveVuelven

The following is a list of commonly used verbs that follow this pattern:

-ar-er
AcordarTo rememberDevolverTo return
AcostarTo go to bedDolerTo hurt
AlmorzarTo eat lunchLloverTo rain
AprobarTo approveMorderTo bite
ColgarTo hangMoverTo move
CostarTo costOlerTo smell
DemostrarTo provePoderTo be able to
EncontrarTo findResolverTo solve
JugarTo play  
MostrarTo show  

VERBS ENDING IN –IR

preferir (to prefer)
PrefieroPreferimos
PrefieresPreferís
PrefierePrefieren

See the list of stem-change verbs with e>ie:

-ir e>ie
AdvertirTo warnPresentirTo predict
ConvertirTo convertReferirTo refer to
DivertirTo have a good timeSentirTo regret
HervirTo boilSentir –seTo feel
MentirTo lie  

Verbs ending in –ir with the stem vowel o change to ue :

dormir (to sleep)
DuermoDormimos
DuermesDormís
DuermeDuermen

Verbs ending in –ir with the stem vowel e change to i :

Pedir (to ask for, to request)
PidoPedimos
PidesPedís
PidePiden

VERBS ENDING IN –UIR

Verbs ending in –uir add a y following the u in all forms except nosotros and vosotros forms.

Incluir (to include)
IncluyoIncluimos
IncluyesIncluís
IncluyeIncluyen

Other verbs that follow this pattern: 

-uir add y
AtribuirTo attributeDistribuirTo distribute
ConcluirTo concludeHuirTo flee
ContribuirTo contributeInfluirTo influence
DestruirTo destroySustituirTo substitute

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